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Overview of ultra-right movements in Europe

Ⓒ AFP – Joe Klamar – | The leader of the ultra-right Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ), Heinz-Christian Strache, closes its campaign for parliamentary elections on 13 October 2017 in Vienna

The far-right Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ), according to the polls, according to the polls on Sunday, appears as the elder brother in the family of extreme right-wing formations spread across several European Union countries.

– Germany –

Alternative anti-immigration training for Germany achieved 12.6% of votes in the legislative elections on 24 September. The movement, with 94 seats, is the first party of its kind to enter such a result in the German parliament since the end of World War II.

The unexpected departure of its co-president, Frauke Petry, and the defection of a deputy illustrate the internal rivalries in this formation created in 2013. AfD is divided between a national-liberal current that loses force and another of ideology close to revisionism and xenophobia which increases their influence.

– France –

The National Front candidate Marine Le Pen passed the second round of French presidential elections in May, with an unprecedented result for the FN (7.6 million votes, 21.3%). It was defeated by centrist Emmanuel Macron with 33.9% votes.

In the legislative sessions that followed, the FN failed to form a parliamentary group, despite obtaining eight deputies. Weakened by internal dissensions, Le Pen has since embarked on a “refoundation” of the party.

– Holland –

Geert Wilders’ anti-militant Party for Freedom (PVV) became the second force in the Dutch parliament in March, behind the Liberals, with 20 of the 150 seats.

This movement created in 2006 continues to be isolated by the other formations, which took 209 days (7 months) to form a coalition government.

– Bulgaria –

Bulgarian nationalists, third in the March legislation in a coalition named Patriotas Unidos, made their entry into the government.

Hostile to the Turkish and Gypsy minorities, immigrants and homosexuals, the United Patriots are nonetheless supportive of the European Union and NATO.

– Italy –

The Northern League, an old secessionist movement, became an anti-European and anti-immigrant party. In December 2016, he successfully campaigned for the “No” in a referendum on the reform of the Constitution, which led to the collapse of the government of Matteo Renzi.

The training, which is difficult to implement in the south, won 18 seats in the 2013 legislatures.

– Slovakia –

Ⓒ AFP – Sabrina BLANCHARD, Thomas SAINT-CRICQ – | Evolution of nationalist or extreme right parties in legislative elections in several European countries

Our Slovakia (LSNS), a neo-Nazi party created in 2012, took advantage of the fear of migrants to enter parliament in March 2016 with 14 seats of 150.

– Greece –

Due to the immigration crisis, Amanecer Dorado (AD) consolidated its position as the country’s third party in the legislative elections of September 2015, with 6.99% of votes and 18 deputies, one of whom left the party.

AD rejects the adjective neoazi and is presented as “a nationalist movement” defender of “the white race.”

– Sweden –

Sweden’s Democrats (SD) became the third political force in the country in September 2014 with 13% of votes. They have 48 seats in a 349 parliament.

Created in 1998, this nationalist and anti-immigrant party, rooted in the neo-Nazi movement, took distances from the racist and violent groups active in the 1990s.

– Belgium –

The Vlaams Belang (VB), which defends the independence of Flanders, has occupied since June 2014 three of the 150 seats in the House of Representatives. In a clear setback, he saw the New Flemish Alliance party (N-VA) seize a good part of its electorate.

– Hungary –

The Jobbik (Movement for a Better Hungary) is the second parliamentary force with 24 deputies.

Faced with the hardline anti-immigrant and authoritarian prime minister, conservative Viktor Orban, the party paraded racist and anti-Semitic slogans from its inception to refocus on corruption, health and education.

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